Thursday, April 10, 2014

FIX University Looks @ Fiber Optic and The No-Lunch With The Napoleonic Futurist of 2014 Elections

Charles K. Kao and George A. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) were the first to promote the idea that the attenuation in optical fibers could be reduced below 20 decibels per kilometer (dB/km), making fibers a practical communication medium. A Fiber-Optic Chronology - SFF Net‎En cachéSimilares 1892: Herman Hammesfahr shows glass dress at Chicago World's Fair .... December 1972: John Fulenwider proposes a fiber-optic communication network to ...

Fernando IX UniversityThe first working fiber-optical data transmission system was demonstrated by German physicist Manfred Börner at Telefunken Research Labs in Ulm in 1965, which was followed by the first patent application for this technology in 1966
Nishizawa invented other technologies that contributed to the development of optical fiber communications, such as the graded-index optical fiber as a channel for transmitting light from semiconductor lasers and this was in 1960s---->2014 (plz wake up a little bit.
Daniel Colladon first described this “light fountain” or “light pipe” in an 1842 article titled On the reflections of a ray of light inside a parabolic liquid stream. This particular illustration comes from a later article by Colladon, in 1884. In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell and Sumner Tainter invented the Photophone at the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., to transmit voice signals over an optical beam.[10] It was an advanced form of telecommunications, but subject to atmospheric interferences and impractical until the secure transport of light that would be offered by fiber-optical systems. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, light was guided through bent glass rods to illuminate body cavities. Jun-ichi Nishizawa, a Japanese scientist at Tohoku University, also proposed the use of optical fibers for communications in 1963, as stated in his book published in 2004 in India Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so that they may be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in confined spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers. Optical fibers typically include a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF), while those that only support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a wider core diameter, and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,000 meters (3,300 ft). Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, and then carefully spliced together with the cores perfectly aligned. A mechanical splice holds the ends of the fibers together mechanically, while fusion splicing uses heat to fuse the ends of the fibers together. Special optical fiber connectors for temporary or semi-permanent connections are also available. "An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made of high quality extruded glass (silica) or plastic." Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is a dioxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2. It has been known since ancient times. Silica is most commonly found in nature as quartz, as well as in various living organisms,[2] Silica is one of the most complex and most abundant families of materials, existing both as several minerals and being produced synthetically. Notable examples include fused quartz, crystal, fumed silica, silica gel, and aerogels. Applications range from structural materials to microelectronics to components used in the food industry. Slightly thicker than a human hair, It can function as a waveguide, or “light pipe”, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. Power over Fiber optic cables can also work to deliver an electric current for low-power electric devices. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics.
Fernando IX University 
Amigos de la lectura y la escritura, sé que nos gustan los talleres, los seminarios, pero también se requiere apoyo para la producción, para los que producen libros que luego compartimos con otros y nos invitan a nuevas experiencias. Si están interesados, aquí hay un lanzamiento interesante. Gracias! Silvia Aquí más información sobre el proyecto : Biografía de la autora: Fernando IX University 
Astronomía Didáctica y la Biblioteca Departamental invitan a la conferencia: “La astronomía como fenómeno educativo” El estudio de la Astronomía se remonta a épocas arcaicas, sin embargo en la actualidad esta ciencia está subvalorada por la escuela tradicional, enseñándose en el colegio de manera superficial y abordándose a pasos lentos a nivel profesional. Explicaciones, implicaciones, ventajas, alternativas, antecedentes y propuestas serán introducidas a la comunidad desde la perspectiva de la educación. Conferencista : Lorena Aristizabal Fecha y hora : Jueves 10 de Abril de 2014, 6:30 pm Lugar : Biblioteca Departamental – Cali Colombia Mayores informes : - 317.5315356 Entrada Libre
Fernando IX University 
Colombia FARC chief negotiator Iván Márquez 15 July expressed confidence country is nearing end of conflict, however FARC ambush in Arauca dept 20 July left 15 soldiers dead, prompting President Santos to order army “not to stop shooting” until conflict over. Constitutional Court 25 July held hearing on constitutionality of Legal Framework for Peace; judgment expected Aug. Speaking at hearing, Santos acknowledged state responsibility for violations of rights and IHL during conflict. Report released by govt’s Historical Memory Group found 218,094 Colombians killed by armed conflict 1958-2012, 80% of victims civilians. Prosecutor General’s Office 29 July confirmed army executed over 3,900 civilians since 1986 to inflate apparent success in fight against leftist rebels. State Council 9 July ruled Patriotic Union party, established as part of previous peace process and which lost legal status in 2002, can again run candidates for office beginning in 2014 elections. FARC chief Timochenko and National Liberation Army (ELN) commander Gabino 1 July issued joint communiqué calling for ELN’s inclusion in peace talks but ELN 16 July rejected govt preconditions for talks. ELN 29 July said release of Canadian mining hostage forthcoming, as Braeval Mining Corporation reportedly preparing to return mining titles to local communities. FARC 19 July announced it was holding former U.S. serviceman captive since 20 June, pledged to release him as “gesture” towards peace talks. Tensions between peasant communities and security forces in Norte de Santander continued, 4 protester deaths reported; UNOHCHR 15 July criticised govt for alleged “excessive” use of force; Santos 16 July stated Colombia no longer needed presence of OHCHR, then agreed one-year extension of its mandate. Authorities 27 July captured 20 alleged members of New Illegal Armed Group (NIAG) “Los Rastrojos”; 2 police suspected of acting as informants.

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